What is Cyber? - en
Cyberspace is a global and dynamic domain (subject to constant change) characterized by the combined use of electrons and the electromagnetic spectrum, whose purpose is to create, store, modify, exchange, share, and extract, use, eliminate information and disrupt physical resources. Cyberspace includes:
- Physical infrastructures and telecommunications devices that allow for the connection of technological and communication system networks, understood in the broadest sense (SCADA devices, smartphones/tablets, computers, servers, etc.);
- computer systems (see point a) and the related (sometimes embedded) software that guarantee the domain's basic operational functioning and connectivity;
- Networks between computer systems;
- Networks of networks that connect computer systems (the distinction between networks and networks of networks is mainly organizational);
- The access nodes of users and intermediaries routing nodes;
- Constituent data (or resident data).
Often, in common parlance (and sometimes in commercial language), networks of networks are called the Internet (with a lowercase i), while networks between computers are called intranet. Internet (with a capital I, in journalistic language sometimes called the Net) can be considered a part of the system a).
- A distinctive and constitutive feature of cyberspace
Cyberspace is that no central entity exercises control over all the networks that make up new domain.Just as in the real world there is no world government, cyberspace lacks an institutionally predefined hierarchical center. To cyberspace, a domain without a hierarchical ordering principle, we can, therefore, extend the definition of international politics coined by Kenneth Waltz: as being "with no system of law enforceable." This does not mean that the dimension of power in cyberspace is absent, or that power is dispersed and scattered into a thousand invisible streams, or that it is evenly spread across myriad people and organizations, as some scholars had predicted.
Cyberspace is characterized by a precise structuring of hierarchies of power
- Virtual world
Cyberspace is a new domain for second life (Wertheim, 1999). It’s different physical space. A User can make electronic personality as long as they have a time and energy (Kollock, 2001), because electronic personality consists of user’s information. Based on anonymity, Individual in web can expresses his or her personality. In cyberspace, a user is able to have several electronic personalities, and acts them (Wertheim, 1999).
- Reality of virtual world
A User believes that cyber personality exists and cyberspace is part of real world (Wertheim, 1999). The confidence can make activities on cyberspace fall into a state of absorption. The more a state of absorption, a boundary between of cyberspace and physical space disappears. In addition to having a role, people take part in activities on cyberspace (Hang, 2000). It makes cyberspace feel more reality.
- Interaction(Social interaction and entertainment)
Cyberspace is a new domain for social interaction and entertainment (Wertheim, 1999). When it’s used as private space, common value or idea makes social network. Social interactions of this kind are chatting on internet community, on-line game, and club on website, and so on. Through these activities, people throughout world have cyber social interaction (Hang, 1999; 2001).
- Community for common interests
People desire space to share their idea and information for business or work (Wertheim, 1999). Website or internet network is used for this. A work or information on web is shared and utilized for everyone’s each goal.
- Public space equality
Web is impartial space. There are not racial or religious or sex prejudice. Horizontal relationship exists between members in cyberspace. Activities and benefits (Social communication and information, and so on) on cyberspace are open to everyone who can use it.
- Destruction of public communications (negative)
People in cyberspace give loose to communicate each other. There is not a supervisor or controller. So public communication can be break and intergenerational communication gap is able to become serious. So far, there is not a rule or a regulation about cyber communication. And anonymity makes control of communication in cyberspace impossible.
- Cyber egoism (negative)
In fact, nobody can control or regulate actions on cyberspace. There is possibility of cyber egoism and irresponsible behaviors have a negative effect (Wertheim, 1999; Park 2001) on realities of life. So far, there is not a rule or a regulation about cyber communication. And nobody can punish a criminal act on web.
- Information Source
Systematizing or structuralizing of information
Information of cyberspace builds up network around nodes (Buchanan, 2002). The node means what kind of information, which contents, and so on. Information on web is systematized orstructuralized around these nodes
- User as a knowledge creator
In cyberspace, anybody can be a writer or an author (Jung, 2008), and anybody can show their music or essay that they have created. Users on web make information as well as take it. A boundary between user and creator is ambiguous.
- Web resource accessibility
Web resource is open to everyone (Wertheim, 1999). In cyberspace, information is shared and circulated free.
- Information Standardizing
For more use, Information in cyberspace needs to be standardized (Wertheim, 1999). Currently Most of web contents are produced as standardized form. So user can apply them without converting.
World Wide Web is huge network that is connected each site as hypertext link through hypertext, without map of information, user can get web resource easily.
accessibility is low).